Vertebrate Flight Mechanics Physiology Morphology ecology And Evolution ulla m Norberg pdf

Vertebrate Flight Mechanics Physiology Morphology ecology And Evolution ulla m Norberg pdf

Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. The mechanical problems of flight ensure considerable external morphological homogeneity and behavioural similarity in extant fliers.

Reconstruction of their wings indicates proficient flying animals, and comparison with birds suggests that most pterosaurs probably occupied marine or coastal/estuarine habitat.

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With this background it is possible to attack two problems:

the evolution of flight in vertebrates, and the flight performance of extinct animals such as pterosaurs and Archaeopteryx.

Observations of the vortex wakes and wingbeat geometry of modern birds and bats confirm that the two groups are mechanically very similar, despite differences in phylogeny, anatomy and physiology.

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Vertebrate Flight Mechanics Physiology Morphology

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The pterosaurs have become the subject of much controversy over the nature of their stance, the wing surface, and the degree of involvement of the leg in the wing membrane.

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Vertebrate Flight Mechanics Physiology Morphology

Flight—defined as the ability to produce useful aerodynamic forces by flapping wings—is one of the most demanding adaptations in vertebrates.